The discovery of the legal universe


Increasingly, universities are taking students by the hand and trying to gradually familiarize them with the legal world.
The first year of license or L1 is the most general. It introduces students to two major categories of law: private law and public law.
As studies progress, it is possible to specialize in one or the other according to his tastes and the choice of his future profession. But by the way, do you know what is "private law" and "public law"?

Private law

It governs the relations between the individuals and defends the liberties of the people. Private law covers in particular:

– the civil law : the relations of a person (name, civil status) with the others within the family (marriage, filiation succession, adoption, pacs) or outside the family (contract, property)
– commercial law : the activity of traders (acts of commerce, goodwill, bankruptcy)
– labor law : relations at work between employers and employees (employment contract, collective agreements, strike rights, trade unions
– private international law: between a person and a foreign element (marriage with a foreigner, succession of a French citizen domiciled abroad, acquisition of French nationality)

Public law

It is the set of rules that govern the organization of the state and govern relations between the state and individuals. Its purpose is the satisfaction of the general interest. It imposes without derogation to all the people. It includes:

-l th constitutional law : the form of the state, the constitution of the government (unitary or federal state, monarchy or republic, Skills legislative or executive powers);
– administrative law : the organization of public authorities (state, region, department, commune and public services (health, education) and their relationship with individuals
– the law of public finance or tax law: the resources and expenses of the State, public authorities and public services (budget, taxes, taxes);
– public international law : relations between states (international treaties) and the functioning of international organizations (UN).

Mixed right

It brings together all the offenses and all the sanctions:

– the criminal law protects the persons in their life, their property thus falls under the private right but the right to punish belongs to the society thus also belongs to the public right.
– the civil procedure brings together the rules applicable to the judgment, the justice is rendered by civil servants for example.

Other subjects studied

In the bachelor's program, there are other courses (compulsory or optional): political science, law history, international relations, introduction to media studies, contemporary political and social history, languages ​​and computer science. History holds a good place in studies (at least for the first two years).

It should be noted that more and more universities are now proposing studies combining the law with another discipline: law-management, or law-history, or law-political science. This allows you, depending on the case, either to obtain a double degree (a law license and a history license), or a single license that will be colored